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Efficacy of Aqueous Leaf and Fruit Ex-tracts

Updated: Jul 21, 2023


A RANDOMISED INVIVO STUDY OF THE EFFICACY OF AQUEOUS LEAF AND FRUIT EX-TRACTS OF ANNONA MURICATA ON ALL GRADES OF INDUCED PROSTATE CANCER IN TRANSGENIC MICE.


Introduction

According to Ferlay etal, 2021, cancer is the world’s most prevalent cause of death, accounting for roughly 10 million fatalities in 2020 and approximately 400,000 children are diagnosed with cancer annually (WHO 2022). Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy occurring in men, particularly, it is the second most common of all diagnosed cancers and represents the sixth leading cause of cancer death worldwide with 1,111,700 new cases of prostate cancer di-agnosed and 307,500 deaths in 2012 (Torre LA, etal, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin 2015; 65: 87–108. Doi. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2022), approximately 80% of theglobal population relies on traditional medicines, plant extracts, or plant-based substances forprimary healthcare ((WHO, 2022)) .


According to the most recent information, of the 1881 approved medicinal entities over nearly four decades from 1981 to 2019, over 23% were derived from natural sources, i.e., unaltered natural products (N; 3.8%), botanical drugs (NB; 0.8%), or natural product derivatives (ND; 18.8%) (Newman, D.J Etal 2020) An estimated 25% of the 247 newly approved anti-cancer drugs were derived from natural products (Newman, D.J Etal 2020). The Annonaceae family includes about 130 genera and 2300 species, including A. muricata L., also known as soursop, graviola, guanabana, pawpaw, and sirsak (Mishra S etal 2013; Leboeuf M etal 1980). Annona muricata has been widely used in the treatment of cancer and diseases in many countries, to interrupt the process of carcinogenesis and to prevent or delay tumor growth (Shukla and Pal, 2004; Alagammal et al., 2013).


Problem Statement

Prostate cancer is a major health concern in globally, causing the second highest number of cancer deaths in men (after lung cancer) and the most cancer cases (apart from non-melanoma Common Disease research Centers in Africa, Asia, and Canada skin cancer). A prostate cancer diagnosis at any age has a major impact on a man’s quality of life. Over 80% of new prostate cancer cases occur in men over 60 years of age, with 97% of prostate cancer deaths occurring in this age group. Prostate cancer is more common in men aged over 50. Men with a first-degree relative with prostate cancer have a greater risk of the disease. Current evidence indicates that the PSA test is not suitable for population screening.


Many prostate cancers grow slowly, while in others, they experience life-threatening prostate cancer where the cancer grows and spreads rapidly. It is difficult to diagnose it early for prevention and treatment. Treatment options include surgery, radiotherapy, hormonal treatments is invasive, costly and debilitating on patients. The various side effects of treatment such as impotence, incontinence and bowel symptoms are also discouraging men from early treatment. Hence the urgent need for treatment options using medicinal plants.




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